Impact: In recent times, the world has experienced major challenges in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. In the Colombian case, academics, educators, and practitioners in this area have embarked on activities aimed at integrating the SDGs into the industrial sector, particularly those sectors that involve the sustainability of mining regions and those where natural resources are extracted (Cano et al. 2019). A recurring problem in theory and practice is the limited applicability of existing methodologies for the study of issues that comprise the sustainable development of mining regions (Buitrago-Franco 2014). In this context, this chapter presents the implementation of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SL), as a methodological tool used in sustainability science for the study of issues related to sustainable development and applied to the case of a mining operation in La Guajira, Colombia, and its relationship with communities impacted by resettlement processes. This chapter therefore explores the connections with the components that make up the Sustainable Livelihood Framework. This chapter also explores the use of both approaches as analytical frameworks to examine the impact of the mining industry on the sustainability of communities adjacent to mining projects, particularly during resettlement processes.