Impact: In recent years, there has been an increase in socio-environmental conflicts in the mining industry. The conflicts over water (CA) are the most booming in the mining sector. One of the most controversial mining projects in Colombia in the last decade is the La Colosa mining project due to the water conflict generated by the project between the Cajamarca community (Tolima) and the mining company AngloGold Ashanti. This research provides a greater understanding of the case study conflict and introduces the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and, in turn, provides information on the influence of CAs on the scope of these objectives. This research contributes to the literature by highlighting that conflict in the Cajamarca area results from the broader socioeconomic impacts of mining operation rather than water as a resource.